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History

1.1            The State of Gujarat has expanded between 200.8’ to 240.33’ latitude in the North and 680.7’ and 740.29’ longitude in the East at the cost-line of India. The geographical area of the State is approximaly 196,000 sq. kms, which is around 6% of the total area of India. The coast line of the State starting from Lakhpat in the North to Daman in the South comes to approximately 1600 kms., which is almost 1/3 of the entire cost line of the country. As per 2011 census, the population of the State comes to nearly 600 lakh, which forms 5% of the population of our nation. More than 1/3 income of the state is dependent on agriculture. The State is divided administratively in to 26 districts and almost 62% area of the State is famine-struck. The State of Gujarat can be divided in to three major part as shown below:-

(1)    Central and South Gujarat
(2)    Saurashtra and Kutch
(3)    North Gujarat

1.2            In Gujarat, the monsoon depends on equatorial climate. Daily temperature of the State ranges from a minimum 13’ C. to 27’C. in January to 27’ to 41’ C. in the Summer during May. The South-West winds mostly bring rain between June to September and approximately 90 to 95% of precipitation is registered in these three months. From the North-West areas to South Gujarat areas, the rainfall varies from 300 mm to 2000 mm per annum. In Gujarat, 60% of rainfall is uncertain, unprecedented and unequal and the regions of Saurashtra, Kutch and North Gujarat face famine every third year. Since 1900, the State has faced scarcity of water and food almost 30 times. To cater the need of the increasing population of the State and to keep pace with the increasing economical development, the demand of water is to be met with from the limited water resources. The State Government therefore, has given priority to upward irrigation sector for saving precious water resources.