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Salinity Ingress Prevention Scheme

1.0 Preface
The total length of coast line in India is 4800 kms. Out of which, Gujarat possesses one-third coastline and Saurastra and Kutch area possess coastline of 1125 kms.

2.0 Issue of salinity and its reasons

In the coastal area of Saurastra, which is 765 km. long, the issue of Salinity has been observed due to natural factors of salinity of ocean water and also due to human interface in the natural balance. This problem has aggravated over the years due to following reasons :-

  • Less and irregular rainfall
  • Porous geographical formation
  • Less natural water filling
  • Weak land management
  • Excessive lifting of underground water by farmers for irrigation
Due to above reasons, a total 700120 hector area, 534 villages, 1079733 persons and 32750 wells were affected. The economical condition of this area was adversely affected and issues of migration of people had also taken place due to deterioration of underground water due to Salinity and adverse effect on agricultural products and industries based on agricultural due to excessive lifting of water by the farmer.

3.0 Measures taken by Government for salinity ingress
Looking to the gravity of salinity and its devastating effects, Government had formed a High level Committee- 1 in 1976 under the then chairmanship of the Chief Secretary Shri H.K.L.Kapoor for Una-Madhavpur area and a High Level Committee-2 in 1978 under the Chairmanship of the then Chief Secretary Shri K.Shivraj for Una-Bhavnagar and Madhavpur-Maliya area for study of issue of salinity and for its solution.
After visit of the affected areas,these Committees had suggested the following measures of various salinity Ingress under four scientific systems:-

Sr.No. Various Works of Salinity Ingress Under Scientific System
1 Management System Regulation of lifting underground water and change in crop – System
    Change in crop System
2 Recharge System Check-Dam
    Recharge Reservoir Spreading Channel
3 Salinity Ingress System Tidal Regulators, Weirs
    Fresh Water Barrier
    Extraction Water Barrier
    Static Barrier
4 Coastal Land Reclamation Rejuvenation of salinity land of oceanic areas


4.0 Works undertaken as per the recommendations made by High Level Committee 1 and 2 and Details of Progress there of.
The High Level Committee 1 suggested various works of Salinity Ingress Prevention works of Rs.64 crore (Revised Cost of Rs. 100.24 Crore) in Una-Madhavpur area whereas the High Level Committee 2 suggested works of salinity Ingress Prevention works of Rs. 168.70 Crore (Revised Cost of Rs. 802.54 Crore)

And of Rs. 370.42 crore (Revised Cost of Rs. 1427.30 Crore) respectively in the areas of Una-Bhavnagar and Madhavpur-Maliya out of the aforesaid works suggested by both the Committees. works of construction of 13 Tidal Regulators, 29 Bandhara, 15 Recharge Reservoirs, 661 Check Dams,28 Recharge Tanks, 4487 nala Plugs and afforestation in 5867 hectors of land have been completed.

  • Spreading Channels:-
    • Total Length 360 kms.
    • Undertaken 331 kms.
    • Completed 141 kms.
    • Under Progress 105 kms.
    • Under sanction/Research 85 kms.

Upon completion of this ambitious extension canal project. The empty reservoir/ponds of one basin having less rainfall can be filled with the river water. Moreover benefit of recharge is also made available. In addition ,upon completion of this extension canal works, 33700 hector area will be benefited directly and indirectly. As the works have been completed in 141 km. length area, a total of 19569 hector area has been directly and indirectly benefited.

Out of the aforesaid Salinity Ingress prevention projects, at present works of 33 projects out of the projects worth Rs. 107.70 crore are under progress in the 6 districts of coastal regions of Saurastra.

5.0 Planning of remaining projects of salinity ingress and financial assistance from outer resources
  • As mentioned above,most of the works as suggested by the High Level Committee-1 have been completed in the areas suggested by the Committee and benefits have been accrued. It is essential to complete the remaining works of Salinity Ingress Prevention in limit as suggested by the committee to eradicate this issue completely. As the works suggested in the areas of Committee-2 are going on as per the current financial availability, financial assistance has been provided by the 12th finance commission, 13th Finance commission and NABARD to avail the benefits estimated for these works.
  • Proposal for financial assistance under the 13th Finance Commission
    • Looking to the gravity of Salinity Ingress, the Central Government has allocated assistance of Rs. 75.10 Crore in the 13th Finance commission under the State Special Need for the works of Salinity Ingress Prevention Works in same.In this connection at present as per revised proposals 33 Salinity Ingress Prevention projects of advance stage such as 1 Tidal Regulators, 6 Bandhara, 2 Recharge Reservoirs, 11 Recharge Tank, 5- Spreading Channel, 5- Redial canal etc. have been included in the programme at the cost of Rs. 80.57 Crore, out of which 12 projects have been completed whereas 15 are going on Upon completion of these 33 projects, quota of 11.77 million cubic meters of fresh waters will be stored, by which, 17811 hector land will get direct and indirect benefit. It is planned to complete the aforesaid scheme by March, 2015.
  • Proposal forwarded for financial assistance under NABARD
    • NABARD has sanctioned a loan of Rs. 204.03 crore under RIDF-12 by accepting the proposal of 36 Salinity Ingress Projects to the tune of Rs. 227 crore to be taken up on priority basis, out of the various Salinity Ingress Projects. This proposal includes 5 Tidal Regulators, 8 Weirs, 9 Recharge Reservoirs and 14 extension / radial canal works. Out of these, 27 projects have been dropped and 2 projects have been proposed to be included under the 12th Finance Commission. At present 7 projects have been included under the NABARD at a cost of Rs. 37.25 Crore. Upon completion of all these projects, water quota to the tune of 22.41 million cubic meters will be stored and 7637 hector land will be directly and indirectly benefited. The aforesaid projects are completed by March 2014.
6.0 Benefits accrued by the salinity ingress projects
  • The works of Salinity Ingress have been undertaken under the recharge and Salinity Ingress System which aim at recharging the fresh water,increase the quality of underground water and prevent salinity of surface water and underground water due to spreading of tidal water. The advancement of saline tidal water has been prevented due to the tidal regulators and weirs which have been completed. Moreover the damage occurring to the fertile agricultural land has also been stopped and the underground water being affected by Salinity earlier has also been prevented due to this. Moreover, the following benefits have accrued upon completion of aforesaid works of Salinity Ingress :-
    • 74512 hector lands have directly to indirectly have been benefited for irrigation upon storage of 318.04 million cubic meters of fresh water.
    • Quality of underground water has increased and an average rise of 2.50 mtrs has been observed in the underground water surface.
    • Looking to the advancement rate of Salinity line of 0.50 to 1.00 k.m. per annum, further 2.26 lakh hectors of land have been prevented from the onslaught of salinity on the basis of completion of these works.
    • 2000 line of T.D.S. has been shifted towards the coastal region from non-coastal regions as per the situation observed in 1988.
    • Due to increase in crop yields, the cost of the agriculture land has also increased.
    • Due to increase in the socio – economical condition (of people of this area), overall prosperity of this region has also been increased.

The Coastal strip between Malia & Lakhpat covers a linear distance of about 360 kms. All along the coast, there is a grave situation of Salinity in ground water.

Total geographical area investigated from Malia to Lakhpat is 3712 Comprising of 245 villages of 7 talukas in Kachchh District. Out of these 245 villages, almost all are affected by salinity.

To solve the problem of Salinity Ingress in Kachchh District, Govt. of Gujarat appointed a High Level Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri Sivaraj in 1978.

The High Level Committee visited the Malia-Lakhpat reach. The following measures are suggested for providing an effective solution to the problem.

1 : Management Techniques :
(i) Change in Cropping pattern,
(ii) Regulation of ground water extraction
2 : Recharge Techniques :
(i) Checkdams,
(ii) Recharge Tanks,
(iii) Recharge Wells,
(iv) Spreading Channels,
(v) Afforestation,
(vi) Gully / Nalla Plugs
3 : Salinity Control Techniques :
(i) Tidal Regulator,
(ii) Bandharas,
(iii) Protection from Salt pans,
(iv) Coastal Bunds.
4 : Coastal Land Reclamation :
(i) Reclamation of Coastal Saline by leaching.

The High Level Committee-II suggested 15 No. of Tidal Regulator, 40 No. of Bandhara, 740 No. of Checkdam, 25 Recharge Tank, 150 No. of Recharge Well, 166 km. Spreading & Connecting Channels, 2000 No. of Nalla Plug, 10000 hact. of Reclamation of Coastal Land of an estimated amount of Rs. 186 Crores.

No. of Tidal Regulator, 3 No. of Bandhara and 110 No. of checkdam completed prior to 2005 while 47 No. of Bandhara, 130 No. of Checkdam completed after 2005. 500 No. of Checkdam, 25 Recharge Tanks, 150 Recharge Wells and 130 km. Spreading & Connecting Channels are under progress and planning.

The Govt. of Gujarat, Narmada, Water Resources, Water Supply & Kalpsar Deptt.,Sachivalaya, Gandhinagar vide his letter No. TFC/ 2010/ 670(4)/ K-7, M I Cell, Dt. 28/12/2011 had approved action plan for 13th Finance Commission in which Salinity Ingress Prevention works taken.

The details of works are as under :-

Sr. No.   Estimated cost (Rs. in Lacs.)
(i) 500 No. of Checkdam 4000
(ii) 25 No. of Recharge Tank 1000
(iii) 150 No. of Recharge Well 1500
(iv) 20 No. of Coastal Bund 1000
  Total : 7500

The probable cost of the revised action plan willbe limited to Rs. 7500 lacs same as per the original planning of Rs. 7500 lacs.

Till March 2013, total expenditure incurred in Salinity Ingress Prevention works is Rs. 541 lacs.